The right way of dealing with the rulers

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مُساهمة The right way of dealing with the rulers

مُساهمة من طرف ben-3006 في الثلاثاء 08 سبتمبر 2015, 23:46

The right way of dealing with the rulers

All praise is due to Allah, we praise Him, ask His help and His pardon. We ask Him to protect us from the evil of our selves and from our bad actions. Whoever Allah guides none can lead him astray, and whoever He leads astray none can guide him. I testify also that there is none worthy of worship except Him, and that Muhammad is His slave and Prophet, may peace be upon him, upon his family and his brothers till the day of resurrection.
Know that the scholars are unanimous that it is obligatory to obey the ruler who takes power by force, and that obeying him is better than revolting against him, because this spares bloodshed and calms down the masses. Also, rising up against him creates divergence among the Muslims, sheds their blood and causes the dilapidation of their possessions. So, once he becomes stable in power and establishes his strength, his imamate will be valid even if he does not gather all its conditions. Accordingly, swearing allegiance to him and obeying him in good become obligatory. It will be forbidden to fight or disobey him. His orders should be applied, and it is unanimously forbidden to rise up against him. This unanimity is reported by Al-Hâfidh Ibn Hajar in Fat’h Al-Bâri(1), By An-Nawawi in Sharh Muslim(2) and the sheikh Muhammad Ibn `Abd Al-Wahhâb in Ad-Durar As-Saniyya(3).
Thus, if one disobeys the ruler, thanks to whom the union is established, separates from the community which agrees to obey the ruler who unites its members and their opinions and protects them from their enemy, then he dies, he will die as if he were of those who died in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance; Al-Bukhâri and Muslim reported in their two collections called As-Sahîh on the authority of Ibn `Abbâs رضي الله عنهما that he said that the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم says: “He who disapproves of something done by his ruler should be patient, for whoever deviates from the ruler even as little as a span will die as (if he were of) those who died in the pre-Islamic period [of ignorance]”(4). In another version: “Whoever notices something done by his ruler which he denies should be patient, for he who breaks away from the company of the Muslims even for a span and then dies, will die (as sinful disobedient) as those who died in the pre-Islamic period [of ignorance]”(5). The reason is that the people of the pre-Islamic period had not a ruler who united them under one religion and one opinion, as Al-Khattâbi mentioned it. Rather, they had various sects and different groups; their opinions and religions were in opposition. This led many of them to worship idols and indulge in Al-Azlâm(6), the latter which is a vain faith in which they believed and thought that they contained good and can bring them good or turn away harm from them(7).
However, it is aforementioned in the hadith reported by Ibn `Abbâs the proof that it is prohibited to rise up against the ruler even if he is unjust, because the one who deviates from the community in a way to keep away from the union of hearts, to expose himself to sins and to disobey the ruler, will have a dire end.
The sharia ordered to stick to the community and warned against divergence – even if the rulers commit injustice -; Allah تعالى says:

﴿وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللهِ جَمِيعًا وَلاَ تَفَرَّقُوا﴾[آل عمران: 103].

The meaning of the verse:
And hold fast, all of you together, to the Rope of Allâh (i.e. this Qur’ân), and be not divided among yourselves﴿ [Âl `Imrân (The Family of Imrân): 103].
Sheikh Al-Islâm Ibn Taymiyya said in Minhâj As-Sunna: “It [i.e. the Rope of Allah] is interpreted by: His Book, His religion, Islam, sincerity, His order, His covenant, obedience to Him and the Islamic community. All these interpretations are reported to be said by the Companions and those who follow them duly till the day of resurrection, and all of them are correct. In fact, the Quran orders to abide by Islam, which is the covenant of Allah, His order and obedience to Him; and holding fast altogether to the Rope of Allah is indeed to adhere to the community; and the reality of the religion of Islam is to vow sincerity to Allah”(8).
Allah تعالى also says:

﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ﴾[النساء: 59].

The meaning of the verse:
O you who believe! Obey Allâh and obey the Messenger (Muhammad صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم), and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority﴿ [An-Nissâ' (The Women): 59].
Those who are in authority are the rulers and governors, according to the authentic hadiths reported in which the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم orders to obey them in good and in what brings benefit to the Muslims(9). Among them, the Prophet’s saying reported on the authority of Hudhayfa Ibn Al-Yamân رضي الله عنه: “There will be rulers who will not be led by my guidance and will not adopt my tradition. There will be among them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of human beings”. I said: “What should I do O Messenger of Allah, if such time overtook me? He said: “You will listen to the commander and carry out his orders, and even if your back is lashed and your wealth is seized (by force), you should listen and obey”(10).
In addition, obedience to the rulers should be observed whether in pleasure or in displeasure, in ease or in difficulty, on condition that there should not be disobedience to Allah تعالى, according to the hadith reported on the authority of Abu Hurayra رضي الله عنه that the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم says: “It is obligatory upon a Muslim that he should listen to and obey [the ruler appointed over him], whether he likes it or not, except that when he is ordered to do whatever is sinful. If one is ordered to do whatever is sinful, he should neither to him nor should he obey his orders”(11).
There is also the hadith reported by `Ali Ibn Abi Tâlib رضي الله عنه that the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم says: “There is no obedience in matters involving Allah’s disobedience. Obedience is obligatory only in what is good”(12). For this reason, it is obligatory to have good intentions towards the ruler.
Among the requisites of their obedience: following them when they fast, observing Aid Al-Ad’ha and Aid Al-Fitr when they observe it. Accordingly, we should fast when they fast in Ramadan, break the fasting when they do it in Shawwâl and sacrifice animals when they sacrifice them in Aid Al-Ad’ha.
Among the requisites of their obedience also: the fact that we should not humiliate them, insult or curse them or expose their faults, whether in books and revues, when giving lessons and sermons, or reveal their errors to the common people. Moreover, we should avoid all what may harm them somehow. The reason of this prohibition is to prevent anarchy, giving up listening and obedience in what is good, in addition to avoid indulging in harmful things that result from abusing and humiliating them, which provoke rebellion against them, cause mischief and have dire consequences on people. For this reason, the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم says: “Cursing a Muslim is like killing him”(13)and: “Insulting a Muslim is a sort of sin, while fighting him is a sort of disbelief”(14). He shows also the bad moralities the Muslim should avoid by saying: “The believer is not given to accusing others or to cursing them, nor is he immoral or shameless”(15).
However, there is no doubt that adopting such bad morality towards the rulers and governors constitutes one of the attributes of the Kharijites. One of them said to the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم: “Be just”(16). Another one said to `Uthmân رضي الله عنه when he entered his house to kill him: “O Na`thal”(17).
Nevertheless, we are ordered to supplicate Allah to reform them and help them to reach uprightness. We are not ordered to invoke Allah against them, even if they commit injustice, as some people among us to whom the way the Salaf deal with the rulers is not made clear; because the sins resulting from the injustice that the rulers commit affect them only, while their uprightness will benefit them and the whole nation. Some scholars among the Salaf said: “When you see a man invoking Allah against the ruler, know that he is under the influence of his passion; and when you hear that a man invokes Allah for the ruler, know – if Allah wills it – that he is a man who follows the Sunna”(18).
This being said, in addition to the fact that we are ordered to invoke Allah for them, we are enjoined also to advise them – when it is possible – without violence, coarseness, rudeness or bad and reprehensible words. Advising them should be done by way of admonition and exhortation to remember and fear Allah, warning them against the day of resurrection inciting them to good doing. In fact, giving advice to the Muslim rulers goes against hatred and deception, as the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم says it ; At-Tirmidhi and others reported on the authority of Ibn Mass`ûd رضي الله عنه a Marfû`(19) hadith in which the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم says: “There are three things thanks to whom the heart of the believer does not become corrupt: vowing sincerely actions to Allah, advising the ruler – in another version: obeying those who detain authority - and sticking to the community, because indeed their preaching to the way of Allah covers and protects them”(20).
Al-Imâm Ibn Al-Qayyim gave a good and detailed explanation to this hadith in Miftâh Dâr As-Sa`âda by saying:
-The expression: “There are three things thanks to whom the heart of the believer does not become corrupt…” means that the heart of the Muslim will not carry hatred and hatred will not stay in presence of these three things, because these latter exclude hatred, deception, resentment and all what corrupt the heart.
-Therefore, the one who is sincere to Allah, his sincerity prevents him from hatred and excludes it wholly from his heart, because his heart and will are devoted to the satisfaction of his Lord; thus there is no room in it for hatred and deception, as Allah تعالى says:

﴿كَذَلِكَ لِنَصْرِفَ عَنْهُ السُّوءَ وَالْفَحْشَاءَ إِنَّهُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا الْمُخْلَصِينَ﴾[يوسف: 24].

The meaning of the verse:
Thus it was, that We might turn away from him evil and illegal sexual intercourse. Surely, he was one of Our chosen (guided) slaves﴿ [Yûssuf (Joseph): 24].
So, as Yûssuf (Joseph) was sincere to his Lord, Allah turned the motives of evil and illegal intercourse away from him; consequently, evil and illegal intercourse kept away from him. For this reason, when Satan knew that he has no authority over sincere people, he made exception of them in his swearing, that of temptation and distraction; he said:

﴿قَالَ فَبِعِزَّتِكَ لَأُغْوِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ. إِلاَّ عِبَادَكَ مِنْهُمُ الْمُخْلَصِينَ﴾[ص: 82-83].

The meaning of the verse:
[Iblîs (Satan)] said: "By Your Might, then I will surely mislead them all, except Your chosen slaves amongst them (i.e. faithful, obedient, true believers of Islamic Monotheism)"﴿ [Sâd: 82-83].
Allah تعالى says:

﴿إِنَّ عِبَادِي لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانٌ إِلاَّ مَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ الْغَاوِينَ﴾[الحجر: 42].


The meaning of the verse:
"Certainly, you shall have no authority over My slaves, except those who follow you of the Ghâwûn (Mushrikûn and those who go astray, criminals, polytheists, and evil-doers)…"﴿ [Al-Hijr (The Rocky Tract): 42].
Thus, sincerity is the means of salvation, Islam is the boat of safety and faith is the seal of security.
-Also: “advising the rulers” is one of the means of purifying the heart from hatred and deception, because the counsel does not mix with deception; it goes against it; so whoever give advice to the rulers is indeed free from deception.
-Also: “sticking to the community” is one of the means of purifying the heart from hatred and deception, because the one who sticks to the community loves for them, thanks to his adherence, what he loves for himself, dislikes for them what he dislikes for himself. What hurts the members of the community hurts him and what pleases them pleases him too; contrarily to those who keep away from them and devote themselves to defame and dispraise them, such as the Rafidhites (Shiites), the Mu`tazilites…etc. whose hearts are full of hatred and deception. For this, you find that the Rafidhites are the most distant from sincerity, who deceive most the rulers and the nation and the most remote from the Muslim community. So, these people are the most deceitful and the men who hold the most grudges; this is the attestation of the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم on them, the nation and their own confession. They are used to bring support and help to the enemies of the Muslims, and whenever an enemy faced the Muslims, they used to support it and be its confident. This is a thing that the nation had witnessed; and he who has not seen that has surely heard about it what deafens the ears and hurts the hearts.
-The expression: “because indeed their preaching to the way of Allah covers and protects them” is one of the best significant concise words. He compares the preaching of the Muslims to a wall and a fence that cover them, prevent their enemy from assaulting them; this preaching is that of Islam wherein they are. As it is a wall and a fence that cover them, the Prophet informs (us) that whoever sticks to the Muslims community will be covered by this preaching as it covered the Muslims. The preaching to the way of Allah gathers and unites the nation and protects its members, and he who joins this community will be covered and protected by it too”(21).
Thereupon, the three things mentioned in the hadith, i.e. vowing sincerely actions to Allah, advising the rulers and sticking to the community include all the fundamentals and rules of the religion, comprise the rights of Allah and the rights of people; and thanks to them the affairs of the worldly life and the hereafter get organized. Ibn Taymiya رحمه الله clarified that and said: “To state that, we say that the rights divide into two kinds: the right of Allah and the right of people:
The right of Allah is to worship Him and not ascribe to him any partner…
The rights of people are two: Particular and public.
The particular rights such as filial piety, the rights of the wife and the rights of one’s neighbor. These are among the branches of religion, the one who is religiously hold responsible may not be enjoined to do them, because their benefit is particular and individual.
As for the public rights, people divide into two kinds: rulers and subjects.
The rights of the rulers consist in giving them advice; the rights of the subjects consist in sticking to their community, because their good lies in their union, and they (the members of the Islamic community) do not agree on error. Moreover, the benefit of their religion and their life lies in their union and their sticking to the Rope of Allah. So, these attributes include all the fundamentals of the religion”(22).
It is for this reason that rebellion against the rulers – even if they are unjust – is heretical and blamable. This is according to the hadiths which enjoin to abide by the Islamic community and obey the rulers, because rising up against them and being authoritative over them are a sin, a disobedience to Allah and to His Prophet and a contradiction to the way of Ahl As-Sunna (the People of Sunna).
Shaykh Al-Islâm Ibn Taymiya رحمه الله said in Madjmû` Al-Fatâwa: “But the knowledgeable, religious and virtuous people (scholars), do not allow anyone to do what Allah has forbidden, .i.e. disobeying the rulers, deceiving them and rising up against them somehow as it is known in the traditions of Ahl As-Sunna and religion in the past and in the present, and in the traditions of others”(23).
This being said, the most correct and right way to realize change lies in calling to the way of Allah following the way of the Prophet by correcting the creed, purifying it from the stains which are attributed to it and which contradict the creed of the people of truth, rooting it deeply by educating ourselves and the selves of our families on the bases of this religion and calling on people to apply its rulings. This should be done in the way that Allah عزَّ وجلَّ ordered us to adopt:

﴿ادْعُ إِلِى سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ ﴾[النحل: 125].

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الاشراف العام

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تاريخ التسجيل : 13/01/2014

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